The main feature of the Constitution of India is that it is also federal and unitary. The second feature is that according to unitary constitutions in the Indian Constitution in an emergency, rules have been made to make the center more powerful.
The Constitution of India is a handwritten document, not a machine. It was written in an italic style by Prem Bihari Narayan Raizada with his own hands and each page was decorated by two artists of Shantiniketan, "Bevhar Ram Manohar Sinha" and "Nandalal Bose".
The Indian Constitution is the longest written constitution in the world. It is divided into 25 parts, with 448 articles and 12 schedules. There are a total of 117,369 words in its English version, which used a total of 254 pen nibs and took 6 months to write. About? 6.3 crore was spent on this entire work.
The original copy of the English and Hindi version of the Constitution is kept in the box of helium-filled cases in the Library of Parliament House.
The first assembly to form the Constitution was sitting on 9 December 1946 and it took 2 years 11 months and 18 days to make it. Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected as the Chairman of the Constituent Assembly and Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar was made the Chairman of this committee.
The total number of members of the Constituent Assembly was fixed at 389, of which 292 were representatives of the British provinces, 4 were representatives of the Chief Commissioners' territories and 93 were representative of the princely states. This number was later reduced to 299. Hyderabad was the only princely state whose representatives did not attend the Constituent Assembly.
The Constitution of India was ready on 26 November 1949, but officially came into force on 26 January 1950 and we celebrate this day also as Republic Day.
The day of January 26 was chosen to implement the Constitution because this day was the anniversary of "Purna Swaraj Day".
It was put up for discussion and debate before the Indian constitution was finalized and then more than 2000 amendments were made to it.
The Indian Constitution is also signed by 284 members of the Constituent Assembly of which 15 were women. Most of the members had their signatures in English and some in Hindi too .. 'Abul Kalam Azad' had his signature in Urdu.
Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar, who was the first law minister of independent India and also chairman of the committee of the Constituent Assembly, is called the "Father of the Indian Constitution".
The Indian constitution is derived from 10 different countries of the world, hence it is also called "borrowed bag". The basic structure of the Constitution is based on the 'Government of India Act, 1935'.
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The Indian Constitution currently gives 6 fundamental rights to the citizens of India, which are derived from the Constitution of America: -
- Right to equality
- Right to freedom
- Right against exploitation
- Right to freedom of religion
- Rights related to culture and education
- Right to constitutional remedies
- In the beginning, the right to property was also a fundamental right. Article 31 of the Indian Constitution stated that "no human being can be deprived of his property". But this right was removed in the 44th Amendment of the Constitution, 1978.
The word 'secular' was added to the preamble by the 42nd Amendment Act of 1976 of the Constitution. This ensures equality and religious tolerance of all religions.
No citizen in India has dual citizenship. There is no discrimination on the basis of caste, color, creed, sex, religion or language and everyone has equal status and opportunity.
According to the first article of the Indian Constitution, "India is a union of all the states" and Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar also made it clear that India is a union, and no state has the right to secede from India.
November 26 is celebrated as "Constitution Day" to promote awareness of the Constitution.